KARL KAUTSKY THOMAS MORE AND HIS UTOPIA PDF
Thomas More and his Utopia. Karl Kautsky. Halaman 4. 3. The Economic Tendencies of the Reformation in England. Chapter II. THE MODE OF PRODUCTION. Read the full-text online edition of Thomas More and His Utopia (). Thomas More and his Utopia. Front Cover. Karl Kautsky. Russell & Russell, – Biography & Autobiography – pages.
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There was no point in extending his property unless he was able at the same time to add tuomas his plant and stock.
Fundamentally different from each other in respect of standpoint, method, and temperament, both were alike as regards their object — communism, alike in daring and fidelity to conviction, and alike in the end which overtook them — both died on the scaffold.
Among other things, this may be inferred from two commercial treaties which Henry VII concluded with Denmark and Florence in It is enough to say that the confiscation of the monasteries meant an increase in the number of the poor and at the same time the destruction of their last refuge. Tillage of the soil must then have been a chief support of the citizens.
The outcome of the constant struggle for mastery of the seas was boundless enmity and glowing hatred between the two nations. On the contrary, the rudeness, the barbarism, the boorishness into which Germany sank to an increasing extent after the sixteenth century, and from which she did not emerge until the beginning of the eighteenth century, rendered the maintenance of science in Germany possible only by its being completely divorced from active life. We rather start from the assumption that the contradictions and antagonisms which the economic development creates in society stimulate thought and provoke investigations by men who are favourably situated to prosecute such researches, so that they may understand what is going on before their eyes and remove the suffering which contemporary conditions entail.
And on the same account it is that the other kinds of cattle are so dear, because many villages being so pulled down, and all country labour being much neglected, there are none who make it their business to breed them.
These laws, I say, might have such an effect as good diet and care might have on a sick man whose recovery is desperate; they might allay and mitigate the disease, but it could never be quite healed, nor the body politic be brought again to a good habit as long as property remains; and it will fall out as in a complication of diseases, that by applying a remedy to one sore you will provoke another, and that which removes the one ill symptom produces others, while the strengthening one part of the body weakens the rest.
When that little money is at an end for it will be soon spentwhat is left for them to do but either to steal and so to be hanged God knows how justly! For when by wandering about, they have worn out both their health and their clothes, and are tattered, and look ghastly, men of quality will not entertain them, and poor men dare not do it, knowing that one who has been bred up in idleness and pleasure, and who was used to walk about with his sword and buckler, despising all the neighbourhood with an insolent scorn as far below him, is not fit for the spade and mattock; nor will he serve a poor man for so small a hire and in so low a diet as he can afford to give him.
It flowed not from East to West, from South to North, but contrariwise. This limit melted away and the land hunger of the great landowners knew no bounds with the arrival of the capitalist farmer, who used his own capital to employ wage workers to cultivate the land which he leased.
Antwerp became for the sixteenth century what Constantinople had been in the fourteenth century and what London was to become in the eighteenth century: The total effect of these changes was to sever the arteries of the German towns, especially of the Hansa towns on the Baltic and the towns in Southern Germany, Nuremberg, Augsburg, etc. Our first enquiry pertains to the causes of such an extraordinary phenomenon. The Church owned a considerable area of land in England.
When capitalism first invades industry and then turns to agriculture, it seems at the outset to wear a benevolent aspect. The number of workless swelled to terrible dimensions.
Thomas More and his Utopia
As far as England was concerned the popes had become tax collectors for the king. It rapidly increased in the sixteenth century, in consequence of the unexampled profits which it then made, and which not only accelerated the accumulation of capital, but also attracted capitalists from the towns.
But since the fourteenth century the dependence of England on the Papacy had been gradually disappearing, as we have shown in the fourth chapter of the second book, and consequently the exploitation of England by the Papal Stool had considerably diminished. You have also many infamous kal, and besides those that are known the taverns and ale-houses are no better; add to these dice, krl, tables, football, tennis, and quoits, in which money runs fast away; and those that are initiated in them must in conclusion betake themselves to robbing for a supply.
In the case of the sale of thomsa, which was to give the impulse to the Reformation movement, the Pope offered Henry VIII a quarter of the proceeds of the sale of indulgences in England, if Henry would give his permission for such sale, but Henry declared that he would be satisfied with nothing less than a third.
At the same time the old communications with the East through Asia Minor and Egypt were interrupted by the invasions of the. We know that he kauhsky a popular advocate, that in he was appointed Under-Sheriff, in which position he had sufficient opportunity to gain an insight into the economic life of the people. We grant that utopa the development of commodity production a class thmoas free persona without property arose in antiquity, who were called by the Romans proletarians. Capitalism in agriculture meant the direct setting-free of workers.
The other aide of Catholicism, the obstacle it presented to the impoverishment of the people, was much more emphasised. Consequently, the Pope was not hated so much in England as in Germany. This, likewise, in many places raises the price of corn. More put forward his economic theories, but the time was not yet ripe for them.
Thomas More and His Utopia
The drift of his speculations, of course, escaped his contemporaries, and can only be properly appreciated by us to-day. This paralysed not only the trade of the Mediterranean seaboard, but also that of the towns on the great German waterways, which, besides being the intermediaries of the trade between Italy and the North, traded with the East on their own account by other routes — via Trapezunt and the Black Sea as well as the land route over Russia.
Such were the Lollards, already mentioned, who adhered to the doctrines of Wiclif until they discovered in Calvinism a doctrine more congenial to them, whereupon they passed over to Puritanism. The same clergy who paid six-tenths to Henry VIII refused in to grant even one-tenth to the Pope, who did not even prevail against them when he reduced his demand to one-half.
As the market grew, the merchants and great landowners of England redoubled their efforts to extend wool jis. But the situation in England was, in a scientific respect, similar to that in Germany: More, too, followed his antagonists into this sphere, and defended Church property annd the pious endowments by a defence of masses in his Supplication of Souls Consequently, he had to twist and turn them about in a truly fantastic manner to adapt them to his modern aims.
Thomas More and his Utopia – Karl Kautsky – Google Books
Eventually Philip lost patience and equipped the great Armada to destroy piracy at its base, kautsk it came to grief, as is well known, in the most disastrous fashion. So it comes about that certain ideas are only operative under certain conditions, that ideas which at one time encounter indifference and even scorn are taken up with enthusiasm, and often without strict verification, a few decades later.
As a Humanist and a politician, More was in the front rank of his contemporaries, as a Socialist he was far ahead of them all.
But uutopia bad custom, so common among you, of keeping many servants, is not peculiar to this nation. This class arose in England kwrl the last third of the fifteenth century. In the same year Parliament appointed him a Commissioner of Sewers. Agriculture, together with the Mark constitution, still formed to a great extent the basis even of the urban mode of production; the separation of the country from the town was nowhere completely defined.
It is clear that ideas must be fermenting for some time before they can exercise any influence on the masses. Like every other Socialist, More utopiw only be understood in the light of his age, to comprehend which a knowledge of the beginnings of capitalism and the decline of feudalism, of the powerful part played by the Church on the one hand, and of world commerce on the other, is necessary.
More was a child of his age; he could not overstep its limits, but it testifies to his qnd, and perhaps also to his instinct, that he already perceived the problems inherent in social development. Not merely individual peasants, but sometimes the inhabitants of entire villages and even small townships were expelled, to make room for sheep.
The towns on the Rhine and on the estuaries of the North Sea suffered less, but the trade which they supported was insignificant and its direction had changed. They sought to attach their bondsmen by treating them well, and if they could no longer prevent their transformation into tenants, they strove to give them security by granting them unusually long leases.
We quote a passage from the first book of Utopia which contains a vivid description of the economic condition of England.